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Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 7 was written in Year 1904 and Year 1905 with repeated revisions to the scoring. Although the symphony is often described as being in the key of E minor, its tonal scheme is more complicated. The symphony's Movement 1: Langsam (Adagio) - Allegro risoluto, ma non troppo moves from B minor (introduction) to E minor. The work ends with Movement 5: Rondo-Finale in C Major. 

In Year 1904 Gustav Mahler had international success as a conductor and became known as a composer. His second daughter, Anna Justine Mahler (Gucki) (1904-1988), was born in june and during his customary summer break away from Vienna in his lakeside retreat in Maiernigg, he sketched Movement 2: Nachtmusik. Allegro moderato and Movement 4: Nachtmusik. Andante amoroso (the two Nachtmusik movements) for Symphony No. 7.

He then worked on Seventh No. 7 intensively the following summer (Year 1905), claiming to take just four weeks to complete the first, third and fifth movements.

The completed score was dated 15-08-1905, and the orchestration was finished in 1906. Mahler laid Symphony No. 7 aside to make small changes to the orchestration of Symphony No. 6 , while rehearsing for its premiere in 05-1906.

In the three years which elapsed between the completion of the score (in 1905) and the symphony's premiere (in 1908) Mahler witnessed dramatic changes in his life and work: In 1907 he had to resign his conductorship of the Vienna State Opera, his first daughter Maria Anna Mahler (Putzi) (1902-1907) died and he learned that he was suffering from an incurable heart condition.

Musicologists surmise that this is why the optimism and cheerfulness of the symphony was subsequently tempered by the small but significant revisions Mahler made in the years leading up to its premiere. 

Symphony No. 7 had its premiere on 19-09-1908  in Prague with the Czech Philharmonic, at the festival marking the Diamond Jubilee of Franz Josef I, Emperor (1830-1916). See: 1908 Concert Prague 19-09-1908 - Symphony No. 7 (Premiere).

The duration of the symphony is around 80 minutes. There is an exceptionally lengthy recording by Otto Klemperer which is 100 minutes long, as well as a recording by Hermann Scherchen with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra that is 68 minutes.

The work is in five movements:

Movement 1: Langsam (Adagio) - Allegro risoluto, ma non troppo.

Movement 2: Nachtmusik. Allegro moderato.

Movement 3: Scherzo. Schattenhaft.

Movement 4: Nachtmusik. Andante amoroso.

Movement 5: Rondo-Finale.

The symphony has a symmetrical arch-like form:

First movement - Nachtmusik I - Scherzo - Nachtmusik II - Finale.

Movement 1 - Movement 2 - movement 3 -Movement 4 - Movement 5.

The Symphony is sometimes referred to by the title Song of the Night (German: Lied der Nacht), though this title was not Mahler's own and he disapproved of it.

Manuscript

Manuscript Symphony No. 7.

Analysis

The harmonic and stylistic structure of the piece may be viewed as a depiction of the journey from dusk till dawn. The piece evolves from uncertain and hesitant beginnings to an unequivocal C major finale, with its echoes of Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg: indeed, at the premiere the overture to this opera was performed after the symphony.

This journey from night to day proceeds via an extraordinary third movement scherzo, marked schattenhaft (shadowy), which may have been what prompted Arnold Schoenberg to become a particular champion of the work. The abundance of themes based upon the interval of a fourth has parallels with the First Chamber Symphony.

The piece has several motifs in common with Symphony No. 6, notably the juxtaposition of major with minor chords, the march figure of the first movement, and the use of cowbells within certain "pastoral" episodes.

Reception

Mahler conducted the premiere in Prague in 1908. A few weeks later he conducted it in Munich and the Netherlands. Both the audience and the performers at the premiere were confused by the work, and it was not well received. It remained for a while as one of Mahler's least appreciated works, often accused of incoherence. More recently, scholars and conductors have experimented with a range of interpretations of the work, especially the tempo of the finale, and the work has thrilled more audiences worldwide and has since become more popular.

Score by Ed. Bote (Berlin), Introduction Symphony No. 7.

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